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Prototyping   |   Teaching Journal   |   Action Research


The ADDIE model (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. Though ADDIE is not the only valid model, it is a commonly used approach that can be effective in almost every situation. Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model.

  • Implement
    • The implementation phase is the actuall delivery of the course and provides the opportunity to roll out the instructional program. During this phase, the instructor
      • puts the solution into practice
      • delivers, manages, and monitors the instruction
      • delivers or distributes the instructional materials
      • reflects on teaching practices
    • This phase must promote the students' understanding of material, demonstrating the mastery level of knowledge and skills.
      • Sample task: classroom activities,
      • Sample output: teaching journal, grades,


wikipedia logo Prototyping is the process of quickly putting together a working model (a prototype) in order to test various aspects of a design, illustrate ideas or features and gather early user feedback. Prototyping is often treated as an integral part of the system design process, where it is believed to reduce project risk and cost. Often one or more prototypes are made in a process of incremental development where each prototype is influenced by the performance of previous designs, in this way problems or deficiencies in design can be corrected. When the prototype is sufficiently refined and meets the functionality, robustness, manufacturability and other design goals, the product is ready for production.

Useful Sites:
Five Paper Prototyping Tips
Matthew Klee
Good overview and high-level responses to commonly asked questions. Good tips on how to make this technique work well for you.

Rapid Instructional Design
Sivasailam "Thiagi" Thiagarajan

Rapid Prototyping as an instructional design
Joe Hoffman and Jon Margerum-Leys
This Web page was put together by Jon Margerum-Leys to serve as a reference for members of Education 626 at the University of Michigan. The original page was completed in the Fall semester of 1996 and has been modified only slightly since that time. This page contains information we've collected on Rapid Prototyping. The page you're on is designed to be long but complete.

What is Prototyping?

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Teaching Journal

Wikipedia logoA teaching journal is a book for writing discrete entries arranged by dates, reporting on what has happened during class or while designing/preparing for class. Such logs play a critical role in many aspects of an instructor's career. There is a strong psychological effect of having an audience for one's self-expression, a personal space, or a "listener," even if this is the book one writes in, only read by oneself.

Useful Sites:
Become a Reflective Teacher: Define Your Teaching Goals and Continue to Reevaluate Them
Peter Frank
Learning is but a journey and the teacher is the guide. Determine down which path you will lead your students. Set your path with a clear and strong vision. Then enjoy the adventure and excitement of learning throughout the school year.

Keeping a Reflective Journal
Engaging in open and collaborative discussion about our work with a peer, and regularly writing up our learning in a journal or log book, is a processes that will enable us to become reflective teachers. The journal is parallel to the field book or laboratory notes of the scientist. We not only record what happened or what was observed but in addition we can record a tentative hypothesis or the development of new understanding, we can use our writing to make a new sense of phenomena. Reflective writing has the potential to provide us with a systematic approach to our development as a reflective, critical and constructive learner. Our journal can provide an opportunity to make explicit our position on a range of issues of personal significance.

The Reflective Teacher
Some wonderful audio testimonial from a first-year Language Arts teacher.

Towards Reflective Teaching
Jack C. Richards
"Asking “what and why” questions gives us a certain power over our teaching. We could claim that the degree of autonomy and responsibility we have in our work as teachers is determined by the level of control we can exercise over our actions. In reflecting on the above kind of questions, we begin to exercise control and open up the possibility of transforming our everyday classroom life."

Reflection in law teaching: a personal account
Hugh Brayne
A case study illustrating the benefits of reflective practice for law teachers in a personal account mirroring the conversational and reflective approach advocated.

Reflective Teaching: Situating Our Stories
Kathleen M. Bailey
This paper combines the research tradition of the literature review and the literary device of flashbacks, in the form of vignettes, to examine the notion of reflective teaching. The paper answers four questions: (1) What is reflective teaching? (2) How is reflective teaching different from what we've always done? (3) How is reflective teaching different from action research? and (4) Why is reflective teaching worth doing? Examples from the author's professional history are used to illustrate three conceptions of teaching (Freeman, 1996): teaching as doing (the behavioral view), teaching as thinking and doing (the cognitive view), and teaching as knowing what to do (the interpretivist view). A case is made for the value of reflective teaching as a practice, an attitude, a way of being professional, and as a source of potentially insightful solutions to problems.

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Action Research

wikipedia logo Action research is research that each of us can do on our own practice, that “we” (any team or family or informal community of practice) can do to improve its practice, or that larger organizations or institutions can conduct on themselves, assisted or guided by professional researchers, with the aim of improving their strategies, practices, and knowledge of the environments within which they practice.

Teacher action research (TAR) is an evaluation method designed to engage educational practitioners in the assessment and improvement of their own practice. It can be an individual tool, helping classroom teachers to reconsider their teaching methods or to adapt in order to solve a problem. It can also be a community activity, helping teams of educators to assess problems in schools, enact changes, and reassess

Useful sites:
Action Research Cycle
The action research cycle consists of four steps – those of planning, acting, observing and reflecting.

Action Research Model
Learning the methods, techniques, tips, and tools that will make your action research quest a success.

Action Research Resources
A substantial action research site. The links on the homwpage will take you to some of the other parts of the site, and some of its associated resources

An Overview of the Methodological Approach of Action Research
Rory O’Brien
This paper will answer the question “What is Action Research?”, giving an overview of its processes and principles, stating when it is appropriate to use, and situating it within a praxis research paradigm. The evolution of the approach will be described, including the various kinds of action research being used today. The role of the action researcher will be briefly mentioned, and some ethical considerations discussed. The tools of the action researcher, particularly that of the use of search conferences, will be explained. Finally three case studies will be briefly described, two of which pertain to action research projects involving information technology, a promising area needing further research.

Collaborative Action Research Network
Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN) is committed to supporting and improving the quality of professional practice, through systematic, critical, creative inquiry into the goals, processes and contexts of professional work. CARN was founded in 1976 in order to continue the development work of the Ford Teaching Project in UK primary and secondary schools. Since that time it has grown to become an international network drawing its members from educational, health, social care, commercial, and public services settings.

Seven Stages in my First Action Research Project
Michael Prendergast
A collection of anecdotal comments taken from his writing folder as an M.Ed. student engaged in Action Research (AR) for the first time. These excerpts focus on the process of the research and how it influenced and changed his practices as a grade 2 classroom teacher.The entries are in chronological order to reflect his experience, which began in September and culminated in mid-November. The comments in brackets were added as afterthoughts as he compiled these entries for this book.

Teacher Action Research as Professional Development
Barbara Baird and Rebecca Davis
A good overview of action research from a teacher's perspective.

Teacher as Researcher
An ERIC Clearinghouse document on Teaching and Teacher Education, Washington DC. It outlines salient characteristics of teacher-led research and its benefits.

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Last updated - 03/19/08

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