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IDEA   |   Teaching Styles   |   Learning Styles


The ADDIE model (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, Evaluate) is the generic process traditionally used by instructional designers and training developers. The five phases represent a dynamic, flexible guideline for building effective training and performance support tools. Though ADDIE is not the only valid model, it is a commonly used approach that can be effective in almost every situation. Most of the current instructional design models are spin-offs or variations of the ADDIE model.

  • Analyze
    • The analysis phase provides the opportunity to examine specific information needed in order to develop effective learning interventions. During analysis, the instructional designer
      • determines what will be taught.
      • identifies needs, objectives, and content
      • analyzes learner characteristic
      • defines what is to be learned
      • defines the constraints
    • The result of the Analysis Phase is a detailed list of tasks to be performed, and a determination of the most suitable instructional medium for the design of each task.
      • Sample task: needs assessment, problem identification, task analysis
      • Sample output: learner profile, description of constraints, problem statement


IDEA logo

About IDEA
The IDEA Center is a not for profit organization whose mission is serving colleges and universities by providing products and services to assess and improve teaching, learning, and administrator performance. The Center supports the evaluation and development of both programs and people.

The IDEA Student Ratings System originated at Kansas State University during the 1968-69 school year. Its emphasis was unique, as it provided constructive feedback aimed at improving the quality of instruction and student learning.

During the next seven years, the system was perfected and refined to assist in the improvement of instruction at Kansas State University. With help from the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, The IDEA Center was established in 1975 and the IDEA student ratings instrument was made available to other colleges and universities. Since that time, other instruments have been added to assist institutions in the assessment and improvement of administrator performance. IDEA Feedback for Department Chairs, IDEA Feedback for Deans, and IDEA Feedback for Administrators serve to provide information to assist higher education leaders to become more effective.

In 2001, The IDEA Center established not-for-profit status to more effectively serve its mission to hundreds of institutions of higher education. The Board of Directors is comprised of representatives from Kansas State University and other national leaders in teaching, learning, evaluation, and higher education leadership.

Good teaching. Better learning. Quality personnel management. Thoughtful decision making. And reaching goals. That's what today's institution of higher learning is all about. That’s what The IDEA Center is all about.

IDEA Resources
IDEA Diagnostic Guide   –  PDF
IDEA Objective Selection Thoughts   –  PDF
IDEA Paper 40 - Getting Students to Read: Fourteen Tips   –  PDF
IDEA paper selecting objectives - Some Thoughts on Selecting IDEA Objectives   –  PDF
IDEA sample student form   –   PDF
IDEA sample Faculty form   –   PDF

Discipline Group Summary Reports

IDEA Arch & Related Progs GRS0100   –  PDF
IDEA Bio & Life Sciences GRS02600   –  PDF
IDEA Chem GRS4005   –  PDF
IDEA Computer & Info Sci GSR1100   –  PDF
IDEA Economics GSR4506   –  PDF
IDEA Engineering GSR1400   –  PDF
IDEA Engrng Relate Tech GSR1500   –  PDF
IDEA Math & Stats GSR2700   –  PDF
IDEA MGMT Accounting GSR5203   –  PDF
IDEA MGMT Bus Admin & MGMT GSR5202   –  PDF
IDEA MGMT Finance GSR5208   –  PDF
IDEA MGMT General GSR5201   –  PDF
IDEA MGMT Info & Data Proc GSR5212   –  PDF
IDEA MGMT Marketing GSR5214   –  PDF
IDEA Philosophy GSR3801   –  PDF
IDEA Physics GSR4008   –  PDF
IDEA Psych GSR4200   –  PDF

IDEA-Teaching Effectiveness

Appraising Teaching Effectiveness   –  PDF
Faculty Annual Report Of Instructional Efforts   –  PDF
Faculty Assessment Of Specific Courses   –  PDF
Faculty Contributions To The Instructional Program   –  PDF
Department Head Review Of Instructional Contributions   –  PDF

The IDEA Center
Their mission: To serve college and university communities by supporting the assessment and improvement of teaching, learning, and administrative performance.

IDEA Resources
Materials to assist on-campus coordinators, faculty, and administrators using IDEA Student Ratings of Instruction.

Selected Readings
Various PDF documents linked to from the RPI course developers’ page.

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Teaching Styles

Developing Teaching Style
Teachers need to consciously consider their teaching style and work toward developing a positive and effective style. Developing a teaching style means more than just one word. To develop a well balanced teaching style means you must give plenty of thought to what works well for you and what will be best for the students you work with.

Good Teaching: One size fits all?
The Teaching Perspectives Inventory was developed by Dan Pratt and has been taken by over 5,000 instructors across multiple disciplines. For Dan Pratt, a teaching perspective "is an inter-related set of beliefs and intentions that gives direction and justification to our actions."

GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles
This file discusses briefly (1) the four dimensions underlying the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and (2) several teaching approaches that will appeal to different MBTI profiles.

Learning Styles vs. Teaching Styles
Research continues to build a strong case for the impact of learning style upon acquiring and mastering knowledge. The underlying thesis is that one learns more effectively when information is presented in a manner congruent with one’s favored method of acquiring and processing information.

Matters of Style
This site provides an overview of the four most commonly used learning styles and proposes applications for teaching.

The Myth of the Super Professor
Consider the universal vision of the professor of the 90's. She does pioneering research in a critical area and brings in big bucks to support the research, including several six-figure NSF grants and 60% release time. She publishes 5-10 papers each year in the most prestigious journals in her field and is a shoo-in for the National Academy. She is a dedicated and stimulating instructor and wins teaching awards at her university and nationally. She does more than her fair share of the tedious but vital service chores that no one wants to do and does them excellently. She is mostly imaginary. The classical academic fantasy is that every professor should resemble this combination of Leonardo, Socrates, and Mother Teresa, but the reality is that very few can pull it off - certainly not enough to populate every engineering department.

Perspectives: What Excludes Students? A Teaching Style that Favors Only One Approach to Learning
Experienced learners are often able to take many different approaches to learning, but most still have some preferences. It's not necessarily the instructor's job to teach in all ways for all students, and some material by its very nature requires a certain approach to teaching and learning. However, taking a single approach to teaching that unnecessarily leaves out other approaches is likely to exclude some students from opportunities to learn.

Strategies for Inclusive Teaching: Diversify Your Teaching Style

Teaching Style Categories

Teaching Style Survey - (Grasha-Riechmann)
The following is a Grasha-Riechmann teaching style survey.

Teaching Styles

Teaching Styles and Instructional Uses of the World Wide Web
In this site, you will find some suggestions based on the work of Anthony Grasha, professor of psychology at the University of Cincinnati, whose book Teaching with Style (Pittsburgh, PA: Alliance Publishers, 1996) describes how an understanding of teaching styles and learning styles can help faculty enhance their teaching. This page contains several links for faculty that use Grasha's categories in planning their distance education courses that have been developed by the CTL.

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Learning Styles

wikipedia logo Learning styles are different ways that a person can learn. It's commonly believed that most people favor some particular method of interacting with, taking in, and processing stimuli or information. Psychologists have proposed several complementary taxonomies of learning styles. But other psychologists and neuroscientists have questioned the scientific basis for some learning style theories. A major report published in 2004 cast doubt on most of the main tests used to identify an individual's learning style.

General Information  |  Kolb  |  Multiple Intelligences  |  Myers-Briggs

General Information
A Hotlist on Learning Styles
Links to sites focused on Bernice McCarthy’s 4Mat System, Gregoric Styles by Anthony F. Gregoric, Dunn and Dunn’s Learning Styles Model, Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences, and a few others.

A Summary of Learning Styles
This article, "Reaching the Second Tier," provides an excellent summary of the most popular and practical learning styles that are appropriate for all disciplines and particularly for the sciences.

Experience Based Learning Systems

Learning Styles

Learning Styles
From one of the richest sites, a page that provides in depth information on Kolb's Learning Style Inventory , Carl Jung and Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences.

Learning Styles
An exhaustive list of links to website and articles on learning styles. (Note: it is unfortunate that this page is not maintained and several of the sites are not active or links are broken)

Learning Styles and Personality
This site acknowledges the fact that there is no currently existing overall, holistic theory of learning styles and that what some call learning styles, others have labeled as cognitive controls, cognitive styles, or personality. This site explores some of the different learning styles and personality traits, and suggests some possible implications for learning.

Learning Styles and Strategies
This follow-up to the article "Reaching the Second Tier" offers specific strategies for students. You may want to send the URL to your students.

Learning Style Categories

Learning Styles vs. Teaching Styles

Matters of Style
This site provides an overview of the four most commonly used learning styles and proposes applications for teaching.

Personal Styles -- Time-Waster or Useful - Should You Join The MBTI Shuffle?
Interesting view on why you should, and shouldn’t, take one of these tests designed to classify or to label people so they can better understand themselves and others.

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Kolb’s Theory
Kolb's Learning Style Inventory

Kolb learning styles - David Kolb's learning styles model
Overview of Kolb’s learning styles model.

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Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education
Howard Gardner's work around multiple intelligences has had a profound impact on thinking and practice in education - especially in the United States. Here we explore the theory of multiple intelligences; why it has found a ready audience amongst educationalists; and some of the issues around its conceptualization and realization.

Multiple Intelligences

Multiple Intelligences
A short page that provides an overview of the theory as well as guidelines on how to teach or learn anything 8 different ways and a wealth of resources.

Project SUMIT - Theory of Multiple Intelligences
A good overview of Information on the Theory of Multiple Intelligences. It is adapted and excerpted from The Project Zero Classroom: New Approaches to Understanding, a publication based on Project Zero's 1996 Summer Institute presentations.

Teaching to the Seven Multiple Intelligences
An ever evolving site that proposes general information on multiple intelligences, some ample units, and some tests.

Technology and Multiple Intelligences
This site provides detailed information on multiple intelligences as well as references on Gardner’s work.

Walter McKenzie's Multiple Intelligence Pages
An extremely rich and useful site that provides an overview of Gardner’s theory, tests, unit examples, resources and much more.

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Carl Jung and Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles
This file discusses briefly (1) the four dimensions underlying the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), and (2) several teaching approaches that will appeal to different MBTI profiles.

Learning Styles
This web page focuses on the use of the MBTI to help students understand their preferred learning styles. It also directs students' attention to the different teaching styles they will face, and how to adjust to teaching styles they don't like.

Personality Pathways
For an introduction to the 16 personality types, the interpretation of Myers-Briggs " test " results, and related content on determining the 16 types, see our What's Your Type page.

The Skeptic’s Dictionary - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®
One of the goals of this rather unusual Website is to provide references to the best skeptical materials on whatever topic is covered. This section provides a critical look at MBTI.

What Is the MBTI® Instrument?
Although most people are not interested in paying the required $99.00 USD to take the test, the information provided by clicking on one of the links in the “Famous Types” table is well worth the visit to the site.

Your MBTI Type
A well organized site that provides in depth information on MBTI types and learning styles.

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Last updated - 03/19/08

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