Recent patents issued to Rensselaer researchers:
System and method for time-efficient distributed search and decision-making using cooperative co-evolutionary algorithms executing in a distributed multi-agent architecture
A method and architecture for efficiently solving complex distributed problems uses coevolutionary agents incorporating evolutionary algorithms located at different nodes in a distributed network. The coevolutionary agents conduct localized database searches and evolve at their respective nodes while sharing information with other coevolutionary agents working the same problem. Results or solutions to the problem posed are available at each network node containing a coevolutionary agent working the problem.
An effective technique for the high throughput screening of displacers is described. In this technique, potential displacers are employed to displace a biomolecule (e.g., protein) adsorbed on a chromatographic resin in small-scale batch displacement experiments. The amount of protein displaced from a specific resin by a defined concentration of displacer is determined by monitoring the supermatant for the protein. By evaluating the displaced protein rather than the displacer itself, this technique enables a single detection technique (e.g., absorbance, fluorescence, etc.) to be employed for all batch displacement experiments. By monitoring the amount of protein displaced, the effacy of a large number of potential displacers can be rapidly evaluated. The entire experimental procedure can be carried out rapidly and is thus amenable to high throughput parallel screening of molecules possessing a large range of affinities and physico-chemical properties. The error of the technique is within 5% of protein displaced, thus making it a very reliable technique. The technique can be extended to different stationary phase materials, biomolecules, and modes of interaction.
Compositions that can be photopolymerized by a cationic initiator at an accelerated rate include at least one epoxy monomer, at least one cationic photoinitiator, and a photosensitizer/accelerator. The accelerator is a phenolic resole, or a compound having a structure according to the formula R.sup.1 (CR.sup.2 R.sup.3 OH).sub.n, wherein R.sup.1 is selected from phenyl, polycyclic aryl, and polycyclic heteroaryl, each optionally substituted with one or more electron donating group substituted phenyl; R.sup.2 and R.sup.3 are independently selected from hydrogen, alkyl, aryl, alkylaryl, substituted alkyl, substituted aryl and substituted alkylaryl; and n is an integer from 1 to 10.
An ultrafiltration membrane is modified to exhibit low protein fouling and yet maintains a greater fraction of the original membrane permeability and retention properties after modification. This is achieved by grafting monomer onto the surface of a highly photoactive membrane such as polyethersulfone, via the process of dipping the polymeric membrane into a solution containing one or more monomers and a chain transfer agent, removing the membrane from the solution, securing the membrane inside of a quartz vessel contained within another vessel of liquid filter, and irradiating the membrane with a UV light at a wavelength between the range of 280 nm and 300 nm. High density grafting and shorter grafted monomer chain length result in low protein fouling and retention of permeability.
One aspect is directed to an improved method for polishing an integrated circuit. According to one aspect, metal features deposited on an integrated circuit are polished using electropolishing techniques. Because electropolishing is used, polishing avoids removal of softer insulating materials of the integrated circuit.
A system for emitting and detecting terahertz frequency electromagnetic pulses. The system comprises a single transceiver device, which may be an electro-optic crystal or photoconductive antenna, for both emitting and detecting the pulses. A related method comprises using a single transceiver device to both emit and detect electromagnetic terahertz frequency pulses. The transceiver device is excited by a pump pulse to emit a terahertz output pulse, which is modulated with a chopper. An object reflects the terahertz pulse and the reflected pulse is detected in the transceiver using a probe pulse. A lock-in amplifier set to the same frequency of the chopper is used to reduce noise in the signal detected by the transceiver. An image of the object may be created using the intensity or the timing of the peak amplitude of the terahertz pulses reflected from the object.
Optical waveguide structures containing siloxane resin composistions as core materials and a method for preparing the waveguides are disclosed. The siloxane resin compositions can be cured by thermal energy or actinic radiation. In addition, conventional patterning techniques can be used, which makes the present method ideal for practicing on a commercial scale. The optical waveguides of the invention exhibit very low optical losses and are compatible with silicon processing requirements, which makes them useful in integrated circuitry. In addition, the high refractive index contrasts between the siloxane resin core and various claddings, including other siloxane resins, makes the waveguides particularly desirable.
According to one embodiment of the invention, a ring oscillator is provided that includes a number of stages, each of the stages being coupled to an output of at least two previous stages. This architecture is referred to hereinafter as a "feed forward" architecture, as signals are fed forward to further stages beyond a consecutive stage. Any number of stages may be used. This architecture represents a new topology for ring oscillator design, as ring oscillators generally include consecutive stages that each have an input from the previous stage only. In general, such an architecture achieves higher frequencies than oscillators without feed forward paths.
A method for purifying oligonucleotides by displacement chromatography on anion-exchange media, using high affinity, low molecular weight (less than about 10000 Da) displacers, is disclosed. Several examples of high affinity, low molecular weight anionic displacers are provided, including polycyclic aromatic compounds having sulfonic acid moieties attached thereon. The efficacy of the technique for high resolution separation of oligonucleotides is demonstrated for an industrial mixture.
A process for the preparation of an alkoxysilyl siloxane substituted with at least one epoxy, vinyl ether, 1-propenyl ether, acrylate or methacrylate group comprises selectively reacting a hydrosilane compound with a compound containing a vinyl or allyl group and a epoxy, vinyl ether, 1-propenyl ether, acrylate or methacrylate group, or a compound containing at least one vinyl or allyl group and at least one dialkoxysilyl or trialkoxysilyl group, to form at least one monohydrosiloxane. The monohydrosiloxane is further reacted to form an ambifunctional alkoxysilyl siloxane.
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