Critical care patients have often suffered a "disturbance"
to the normal operation of their physiological system; this disturbance
could have been generated by surgery or some sort of trauma (e.g.
a heart attack). A responsibility of the critical care physician
is to maintain certain patient outputs within an acceptable operating
range. Two important outputs to be maintained are mean arterial
pressure (MAP) and cardiac output (CO). Often the anesthesiologist
will infuse several drugs into the patient in order to control
these states close to the desired values. A conceptual diagram
is shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Drug Infusion Control
The goal of this control system design is to manipulate the flowrate
of two drugs, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and dopamine (DPM) to
maintain the two outputs (MAP and CO) at their desired setpoints.
A successful implementation of such a strategy allows the anesthesiologist
to spend more time monitoring other patient states, such as "depth
A significant number of research articles have been published in the IEEE Transcations on Biomedical Engineering. Isaka and Sebald (1993), review various modelling and control strategies for SISO control of MAP. Voss et al. (1987) and Yu et al.(1992) discuss advanced control strategies for this multivariable control problem.
In this case study, you will be required to
Isaka S., and A.V. Sebald, Control strategies for arterial blood
pressure regulation. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
v. 40, p. 353-63, 1993.
Voss G. I., P.G. Katona, and H.J. Chizeck, Adaptive multivariable
drug delivery : Control of arterial pressure and cardiac output
in anesthetized dogs. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
v. 34, p. 617-23, 1987.
Yu C., R. J. Roy, H. Kaufman, and B. W. Bequette, Multiple model
adaptive predictive control of arterial pressure and cardiac output.
IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering v. 39, p.