Elmar R. Altwicker


(R = refereed publication, PP = published report, PR = presentation)

Combustion: Role of Fuel Additives in NOx-Formation

Incineration: Spouted Bed Combustion, Mechanisms of Trace Organics & Dioxin Formation in Municipal Waste (Heterogeneous) Incineration, Modeling (40 publications, 50 presentations)

Shen, T.T. and E.R. Altwicker, "Effects of Additives of Nitric Oxide and Sulfur Oxides Emissions", New York Department of Environmental Conservation, Technical Paper #14, October 1971 (PP).

Shen, T.T. and E.R. Altwicker, "Construction and Performance of a Small Oil Burner and the Effects of Additives on Nitrogen Oxides and Sulfur Oxides Emissions", Proceedings of 4th Annual NOFI-meeting (1972) (PP, PR).

Shen, T.T. and E.R. Altwicker, "Further Study on the Effects of Additives on Nitric Oxide and Sulfur Dioxide from Oil Combustion", New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Technical Paper #20, May 1972 (PP).

Altwicker, E.R. and T.T. Shen, "Effect of Metallic Additives on NOx-Emission from a Small Oil Burner", Combustion Sci. & Technol., 9, 61 (1974) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Comment on Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, a Critical Review by T.E. Oppelt, J. Air Pollut. Contr. Assoc., 37, 558 (1987) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Fundamental Aspects of Incineration Related to Pollutant Formation, Paper presented (invited) at the 2nd Annual Ntl. Symp., Incineration of Industrial Wastes, San Diego, CA, March 9, 1988. Symposium Proceedings, Toxcon Engineering, Published in Symposium Proceedings (PP, PR).

Altwicker, E.R., Formation of Polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and Polychlorodibenzofurans During Heterogeneous Combustion, 3rd Chemical Congress of North America and 195th ACS National Mtg., Toronto, Ontario, Canada, June 5-10, 1988, (Invited), (PR).

Altwicker, E.R., The Destruction and Removal Efficiency of Toluene in Combustion and Related Processes, Chemosphere, 19, 1233-1241, 1989 (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Schonberg, J.S., Konduri, R.K.N.V., and Milligan, M.S., Polychlorinated Dioxin/Furan Formation in Incinerators, Haz. Waste Haz. Materials, 7, 73-87 (1990) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Some Laboratory Experimental Designs for Obtaining Dynamic Property Data About Dioxins, in The Science of the Total Environment, 104, 47-72, W.M. Shaub, Ed. (1990) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., J.A. Schonberg, and R.K.N.V. Konduri (1990) Formation of Polychlorodibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorodibenzo Furans during Heterogeneous Combustion, Chapter 2 in Emissions from Combustion Processes, R. Clement and R. Kagel, Eds., Lewis Publishers, p. 25-56.

Altwicker, E.R., and Konduri, R.K.N.V., "Hydrodynamic Aspects of Spouted Beds at Elevated Temperatures," Comb. Sci.& Techn., 87, 173-197 (1992) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Konduri, R.K.N.V., Lin, C., and Milligan, "Rapid Formation of Polychlorinated Dioxins/Furans in the Post Combustion Region During Heterogeneous Combustion,", Chemosphere, 25(12), 1935-1944 (1992) (R).

Kolluri, R., and Altwicker, E.R., "A Model to Analyze the Formation of Dioxins in the High Temperature Regions of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators," J. Air Waste Mgt. Assoc., 42, 1577-1582 (1992) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Konduri, R., Lin, C., and Milligan, M.S., "Formation of Precursors to Polychlorinated Dioxin/Furans Under Heterogeneous Conditions," Comb. Sci.& Techn., 88, 349-368 (1993) (R).

Milligan, M.S., and Altwicker, E.R., "On a Relationship Between de Novo Synthesis of PCDD/F and Low Temperature Carbon Gasification in Fly Ash," Environ. Science & Tech., 27, 1595-16-1 (1993) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., and Milligan, M.S., "Formation of Dioxins: Competing Rates Between Chemically Similar Precursors and de Novo Reactions," Chemosphere, #1-3, 301-307 (1993) (R).

Milligan, M.S. and Altwicker, E.R., "The Catalytic Gasification of Carbon in Incinerator Fly Ash", Carbon, 31, #6, 977-986 (1993) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Dioxin/Furan in Incinerators-Laboratory and Modeling Studies and Technical Issues Remaining, Municipal Waste Combustion, Int. Specialty Conference, VIP-32 (1993), p. 202-216.

Konduri, R. and E.R. Altwicker, Analysis of Timescales Pertinent to Dioxin/Furan Formation on Fly Ash Surfaces in Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators, Chemosphere, 28, 23-45 (1994).

Altwicker, E.R. and M.S. Milligan (1993) Formation of Dioxins: Competing Rates Between Chemically Similar Precursors and de Novo Reactions, Chemosphere 27, 301-307 (R).

Altwicker, E.R. and M.S. Milligan (1993) Dioxin Formation from Tetrachlorophenol Over Fly Ash Under Breakthrough Conditions, Dioxin 93, 13th Int. Symp. on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, Vol. 11, 269-272, Federal Environmental Agency, Austria, ISBN 3-85457-129-1 (R).

Konduri, R., Altwicker, E., and Morgan, M.H., III, "Combustion of Propane in a Spouted Bed: Surface Effects", Comb. Sci. Technol., 101, 1-6, 459-480.(1994).

Kolluri, R. and Altwicker, E., "The Effect of the Electric Field on the Formation of PCDD in Electrostatic Precipitators", Haz. Waste Haz. Materials, 11, 145-156 (1994).

Ghorishi, S.B., and Altwicker, E., 1994, Heterogeneous Oxidation of Toluene in the Bed Region of a Spouted Bed Combustor: Effect of Temperature and Bed Material, Comb. Sci. Technol., V. 103, 1-6, p. 117 (1995).

Ghorishi, S.B. and Altwicker, E., (1995) "Formation of Polychlorinated Dioxins, Furans, Benzenes, and Phenols in the Post-Combustion Region of a Heterogeneous Combustor: Effect of Bed Material and Post-Combustion Temperature", Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 1156-1162.

Milligan, M.S. and Altwicker, E., (1995) "Mechanistic Aspects of the de novo Synthesis of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans in Fly Ash from Experiments Using Isotopically Labeled Reagents", Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 1353-1358.

Konduri, R., E.R. Altwicker and M.H. Morgan, III, (1995) "Atmospheric Spouted Bed Combustion: The Role of Hydrodynamics in Emissions Generation and Control", Can. J. Chem. Engng., 73, 744-754.

Altwicker, E.R., (1996) "Relative Rates of Formation of Polychlorinated Dioxins and Furans from Precursor and de novo Reactions", Chemosphere, 33, 1987-1994.

Altwicker, E.R., (1996) "Formation of PCDD/F in Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators: Laboratory and Modeling Studies", J. Haz. Mtls., 47, 137-161 (invited review paper).

Milligan, M.S. and E.R. Altwicker, (1996) "Chlorophenol Reactions on Fly Ash. 1. Adsorption/Desorption Equilibria and Conversion to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Environ. Sci. Tech., 30, 225-229. 2. Equilibrium Surface Coverages & Global Kinetics, ibid., 30, 230-236.

Addink, R. and E.R. Altwicker (1997) "Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins/ Dibenzofurans from Carbon on Fly Ash: Role of Aqueous Extraction and Redoping", Organohalogen Cmpds. 31, 486-491.

Konduri, R., E.R. Altwicker and M.H. Morgan, III, (1998) "Design and Scaleup Consideration of a Spouted Bed Combustor, Chem. Engng. Sci., 53, 1-19.

Addink, R. and E.R. Altwicker (1998) "Role of Copper Compounds in the de novo Synthesis of PCDD\F", Environ. Engng. Sci., 15, 14-27.

Hell, K., E.R. Altwicker, L. Stieglitz, and R. Addink (1998) "Comparison of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol Conversion to PCDD/F on a MSWI-Fly Ash and a Model Fly Ash", Organohalogen Cmpds., 36, 53-58.

Addink, R., and E.R. Altwicker (1998), "Role of C-Cl Bonds in the Formation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins/Dibenzofurans from Soot", Organohalogen Cmpd., 36, 73-76.

Atmospheric Pollution: Acid Rain, Ozone, Hydrocarbons, Field Measurements, Data Analysis, Modeling of Below-Cloud Scavenging (27 publications, 27 presentations)

Altwicker, E.R. and J. Mahar, NH4/Ca-Ratios in Different Forms of Atmospheric Deposition: Interpretative Potential, Atmos. Envir. 18, 1875-1883 (1984) (R).

Johannes, A.H. and E.R. Altwicker, Atmospheric Deposition to Remote Receptors I. Precipitation Quantities from the ILWAS-Network, Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 28, 39-53n (1986) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., A.H. Johannes, and N.L. Clesceri, ibid., II. Temporal and Spatial Variation of Inorganic Ion Species in Precipitation over the ILWAS-Network, ibid., 28, 55-70 (1986) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., P.E. Shanaghan, and A.H. Johannes, ibid., III. Statistical Analysis of Precipitation Data from the ILWAS-Network, ibid., 28, 71-88 (1986) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Spatial and Historical Trends in Acidic Deposition: A Graphical Intersite Comparison, Atmos. Envir., 21, 129-135 (1987) (R).

Chen, C.W., A.H. Johannes, S.A. Gherini, R.A. Goldstein, E.R. Altwicker, and L. Gomez, Expected pH for Halving Sulfate in Adirondack Rain, J. Env. Engng., 113, 979-993 (1987), ASCE (R).

Tsai, W. and E.R. Altwicker, Numerical Simulation of Wet Scavenging of Air Pollutants: Part I. Modeling of Sequential Precipitation Rates at the Ground, Atmos. Envir. 24A, 2473-2483 (1990) (R).

Tsai, W., E.R. Altwicker, and W.A.H. Asman, ibid., Part II. Modeling of Rain Composition at the Ground, ibid., 2485-2498 (1990) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Atmospheric Deposition and Processes, AWMA Specialty Conference on the Scientific Evaluation of the NAPAP Final Assessment: Acid Deposition, Pittsburgh, PA, 12/4-6/1990 (I.); Proceedings, VIP-18, Air Waste Mgt. Assoc., p. 40-61 (1991).

Altwicker, E.R. and J. Basila, Contribution to the Kinetics of Ozone-Olefin Reactions, Tetrahedron 29, 1969-1974 (1973).

Altwicker, E.R., Ozone Formation DuringSulfur Dioxide Irradiation, J. Environ. Sci. Health, A11(7), 439-443 (1976).

Altwicker, E.R. and F. DiCesare, Relationship Between Specific Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Ozone in Ambient Air and Their Role in Transportation Control Strategies, Final Report to US DOT, DOT-OS-70070 (Sept. 1979).

Whitby, R.A. and E.R. Altwicker, "Acetylene in the Atmosphere, Sources, Representative Ambient Concentrations and Ratios to Other Hydrocarbons", Atmos. Envir., 12, 1289-96 (1978) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., R.A., Whitby and P.J Lioy, "Specific Nonmethane Hydrocarbons and Their Relationship to Ozone in an Eastern Urban Area, Manhattan", J. Geophys. Res., 85, 7475 (1980) (R).

Mass Transfer With Chemical Reaction; CO2 and SO2 Absorption Rates to Accelerating Drops; Liquid Phase Oxidation; Heat Effects, Nonisothermal Enhancement Factors (9 publications, several presentations)

Wet Scrubbing, Chapter 5 in Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Vol. I; L.K. Wang and N.C. Pereira, Editors; Humana Press, 1979 (R).

Altwicker, E.R. and E. Chapman, "Mass Transfer of Sulfur Dioxide into Falling Drops: A Comparison of Experimental Data With Absorption Models", Atmos. Envir., 15, 297 (1981) (R).

Altwicker, E.R. and C. Kleinstreuer, "Sulfur Dioxide Absorption, Oxidation and Oxidation/Inhibition in Falling Drops: An Experimental/Modeling Approach", Conference Proceedings (monograph) of Workshop Conference, Heterogeneous Atmospheric Chemistry, Geomonograph 26, American Geophysical Union, p. 178-186 (1982) (R).

Altwicker, E.R. and K.K. Nass, Evidence of Enhanced Mass Transfer and Synergistic Catalysis of Aqueous Phase Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation by Mixtures of Managanese and Iron, Atmos. Envir., 17, 187-190 (1983) (R).

Kleinstreuer C., R.S. Ramachandran, and E.R. Altwicker, Analysis of Sulfur Dioxide Absorption With Oxidation in an Accelerating Stream of Drops, The Chemical Eng. J., 30, 45-56 (1985) (R).

Kleinstreuer, C., R.S. Ramachandran, and E.R. Altwicker, Coupled Two-Phase Mass Transfer to Spherical Drops, Can. J. Chem. Engng., 63, 911-918 (1985) (R).

Ramachandran, R.S., C. Kleinstreuer, and E.R. Altwicker, Mass Transfer to an Accelerating Multidrop System, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 30, 607-610 (1987) (R).

Chatterjee, S.G. and E.R. Altwicker, Film and Penetration Theories for a First Order Reaction in Exothermic Gas Absorption, Can J. Chem. Eng., 65, 453-461 (1987) (R).

Altwicker, E.R. and C. Lindhjem, Absorption of Gases Into Drops, AIChE J., 34, 329-332 (1988) (R).

The Role of Inhibitors in Kinetics of S(IV)-Oxidation in Aqueous Solution

(7 publications, 6 presentations)

Altwicker, E.R., "The Chemistry of Stable Phenoxy Radicals", Chemical Reviews, 67, 475 (1967) (R).

Altwicker, E.R. and T. Sekulic, "Inhibition of Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation During Absorption", Environmental Letter, 7, 125 (1974) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., "Absorption, Oxidation and Oxidationsinhibierung", Paper presented at ACHEMA '76; DECHEMA-monograph Band 80, Teil 2, 343-64 (1976) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., "The Role of Inhibitors in the Kinetics of Sulfite Oxidation", Trans. Instn. Chem. Engrs., 55, 281 (1977) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., "Oxidation/Inhibition of Sulfite Ion in Aqueous Solution", AIChE-Symposium Series No. 188, 75, 145-50 (1979) (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Oxidation and Oxidation/Inhibition of Sulfur Dioxide in Advances in Environmental Science and Engineering, Vol. 3, 80 (1980); E.N. Ziegler and J.R. Pfafflin, Editors (R).

Altwicker, E.R., Inhibition of Transition Metal Ion-Catalyzed Oxidation of S(IV)-Species in Rain and Cloud Drops, 78th Annual APCA Meeting, Detroit, MI, June 16-21, 1985, Paper #85-7.6 (Invited) (PR).