The nucleus controls all of the cellular activities. This is accomplished via DNA molecules stored in the nucleus in elements called chromosomes. The DNA contains the coding for all protein production for the cell. The nucleus is roughly spherical and about 2 micrometers in diameter.
The mitochondria is the cell's powerhouse. When oxygen is sufficient and fermentable sugars are available, the mitochondria are used to completely breakdown the sugar source and form the maximum amount of ATP.
The golgi complex is responsible for packaging materials -->readying it for transport in the cell or storage.
This cell organelle is the cell's "highway" system. Materials are transported throughout the yeast cell through this intercellular system.
Throughout the fermentation, yeast is going through its own life cycle. This includes:
. 1. Respiration
During this period, yeasts gain and store energy for reproduction and other activities. Yeasts can gain energy from oxygen and sugar.
. 2. Reproduction
Yeasts are single cell organisms that reproduce through budding.
. 3. Fermentation
During this part of the life cycle, yeast expends energy by converting sugars to alcohol, carbon dioxide and distinct flavor. At this time, the yeast is dispersed and in a state of suspension in order to obtain maximum contact with the liquid beer mixture.
. 4. Sedimentation
At this stage, the yeast runs out of food and energy. It gathers and then settles, essentially shutting down all activity.
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