anaerobe - organism that wants very little or no oxygen
autotrophs - organisms that need no preformed organic foods
bacterial endospores - see endospores
bacteriophage - virus (phage) that infects a bacterium
chemotrophs - organisms that derive energy from inorganic reactions
constitutive - enzyme always synthesized and ready
endospore - seed-like structure; formed to preserve life when conditions turn bad
eukaryotic - cell has nucleus; divides through mitosis
The cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes is fundamentally similar to that of a eukaryotic cell. The variety of proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane in prokaryotes is greater because of the significantly greater number of functions performed by it. As with eukaryotes, the membrane controls the permeability of the cell and is the major site of energy metabolism. In bacteria, either the electron transport system or the site of photosynthetic energy metabolism is located in the cytoplasmic membrane. The ribosomes of the prokaryotes are the site of protein synthesis. Many prokaryotes are immotile, but some have either a single flagellum or multipole flagella as their means of locomotion.
facultative - prefers but not absolute, e.g., facultative anaerobe
flow cytometer - instrument with a tiny orifice through which particles (such as bacteria) flow through one at a time. As they pass through a laser beam, biochemicals may be determined on a per cell basis.
heterotrophs - organisms that must have carbon-energy compounds
inducible - enzyme not synthesized or activated until needed
nematodes - tiny worms; some are eaten by fungi
obligate - absolute requirement, e.g., obligate aerobe
pathogens - organisms that cause disease
phage - viruses for microorganisms
photosynthesis - use of light to carry out reductive biochemical processes necessary for life. Pigments capture light energy in much the same way as an antenna captures a radio or tv signal. This drives biochemical reactions. The overall effect may be summarized as water plus carbon dioxide are converted to biochemicals.
prokaryotic - no organized nucleus
The components of a typical prokaryotic cell are a cell wall, a cytoplasmic membrane, a single molecule of DNA, ribosomes and the cytoplasm. All other components, although they might be present, are essentially dispensable.
protozoa - tiny animals; most feed on microorganisms
yeast - eukaryotic organisms larger than most bacteria, commonly divides by budding