Given the potential power and advantages of biosensors over other approaches, there are still only few examples of their use in bioprocesses. One of the main obstacles is sterilization. Most fermenter are sterilized with steam, which inactivates the biological component of biosensors.
Biosensors have to be in direct contact with the medium. This leads to many problems: microbial fouling, poising through inhibition, degradation of the biocomponent,...
Most biosensors show a gradual drop-off in response with time of exposure to chemical environment.
A further problem is the rather slow response time and the relatively limited time of stability of the signal. Both are severe draw-backs for a signal which is supposed to be used for control purposes.

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