The most widespread biosensor today is the glucose biosensor. It is very often used to measure the glucose concentration in blood. Its application for diabetes patients was also the driving force for the glucose sensor research.

There are quite a few enzymes which could be used as glucose detectors. Many of them require cofactors, though. The following example shows the glucose enzyme reaction with glucose oxidase. This enzyme doesn't require cofactors and is in addition one of the most stable enzymes for glucose detection:

Fig 7: Glucose assay with a biosensor

Click to see an animation

With the reaction shown above there are two possibilities to measure the glucose concentration: either one measures the oxygen consumption or the hydrogen-peroxide production. As a third option it would be also possible to measure the temperature increase due to heat released by the two reactions.
The presence of the second enzyme (catalase)a although not really essential for the assay, enhances the first reaction. This happens because of the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide.

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