pine - a Program for Internet News and Email
pine [ options ] [ address , address ]
pinef [ options ] [ address , address ]
Pine is a screen-oriented message-handling tool. In its
default configuration, Pine offers an intentionally limited
set of functions geared toward the novice user, but it also
has a growing list of optional "power-user" and personal-
preference features. pinef is a variant of Pine that uses
function keys rather than mnemonic single-letter commands.
Pine's basic feature set includes:
View, Save, Export, Delete, Print, Reply and Forward
Compose messages in a simple editor (Pico) with word-
wrap and a spelling checker. Messages may be postponed
for later completion.
Full-screen selection and management of message
Address book to keep a list of long or frequently-used
addresses. Personal distribution lists may be defined.
Addresses may be taken into the address book from
incoming mail without retyping them.
New mail checking and notification occurs automatically
every 2.5 minutes and after certain commands, e.g.
On-line, context-sensitive help screens.
Pine supports MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions),
an Internet Standard for representing multipart and
multimedia data in email. Pine allows you to save MIME
objects to files, and in some cases, can also initiate the
correct program for viewing the object. It uses the
system's mailcap configuration file to determine what
program can process a particular MIME object type. Pine's
message composer does not have integral multimedia
capability, but any type of data file --including
multimedia-- can be attached to a text message and sent
using MIME's encoding rules. This allows any group of
individuals with MIME-capable mail software (e.g. Pine, PC-
Pine, or many other programs) to exchange formatted
documents, spread-sheets, image files, etc, via Internet
Pine uses the c-client messaging API to access local and
remote mail folders. This library provides a variety of
low-level message-handling functions, including drivers for
a variety of different mail file formats, as well as
routines to access remote mail and news servers, using IMAP
(Internet Message Access Protocol) and NNTP (Network News
Transport Protocol). Outgoing mail is usually handed-off to
the Unix sendmail, program but it can optionally be posted
directly via SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).
The command line options/arguments are:
address Send mail to address. This will cause
Pine to go directly into the message
-a Special anonymous mode for UWIN*
-c context-number context-number is the number
corresponding to folder-collection to
which the -f command line argument
should be applied. By default the -f
argument is applied to the first defined
-d debug-level Output diagnostic info at debug-level
(0-9) to the current .pine-debug[1-4]
file. A value of 0 turns debugging off
and suppresses the .pine-debug file.
-f folder Open folder (in first defined folder
collection) instead of INBOX.
-F file Open named text file and view with
-h Help: list valid command-line options.
-i Start up in the FOLDER INDEX screen.
-I keystrokes Initial (comma separated list of)
keystrokes which Pine should execute on
-k Use function keys for commands. This is
the same as running the command pinef.
-l Expand all collections in FOLDER LIST
-n number Start up with current message-number set
-nr Special mode for UWIN*
-o Open first folder read-only.
-p config-file Use config-file as the personal
configuration file instead of the
-P config-file Use config-file as the configuration
file instead of default system-wide
configuration file pine.conf.
-r Use restricted/demo mode. Pine will
only send mail to itself and functions
like save and export are restricted.
-z Enable ^Z and SIGTSTP so pine may be
-conf Produce a sample/fresh copy of the
system-wide configuration file,
pine.conf, on the standard output. This
is distinct from the per-user .pinerc
-create_lu addrbook sort-order
Creates auxiliarly index (look-up) file
for addrbook and sorts addrbook in
sort-order, which may be dont-sort,
nickname, fullname, nickname-with-
lists-last, or fullname-with-lists-last.
Useful when creating global or shared
-pinerc file Output fresh pinerc configuration to
-sort order Sort the FOLDER INDEX display in one of
the following orders: arrival, subject,
from, date, size, orderedsubj or
reverse. Arrival order is the default.
The OrderedSubj choice simulates a
threaded sort. Any sort may be reversed
by adding /reverse to it. Reverse by
itself is the same as arrival/reverse.
-option=value Assign value to the config option option
e.g. -signature-file=sig1 or -feature-
feature-list values are additive)
* UWIN = University of Washington Information Navigator
There are several levels of Pine configuration.
Configuration values at a given level over-ride
corresponding values at lower levels. In order of
o built-in defaults.
o system-wide pine.conf file.
o personal .pinerc file (may be set via built-in
o command-line options.
o system-wide pine.conf.fixed file.
There is one exception to the rule that configuration values
are replaced by the value of the same option in a higher-
precedence file: the feature-list variable has values that
are additive, but can be negated by prepending "no-" in
front of an individual feature name. Unix Pine also uses the
following environment variables:
DISPLAY (determines if Pine can display IMAGE
SHELL (if not set, default is /bin/sh )
MAILCAPS (semicolon delimited list of path names to
/usr/spool/mail/xxxx Default folder for incoming
~/mail Default directory for mail
~/.addressbook Default address book file.
~/.addressbook.lu Default address book index file.
~/.pine-debug[1-4] Diagnostic log for debugging.
~/.pinerc Personal pine config file.
~/.newsrc News subscription/state file.
~/.signature Default signature file.
~/.mailcap Personal mail capabilities file.
~/.mime.types Personal file extension to MIME
/etc/mailcap System-wide mail capabilities
/etc/mime.types System-wide file ext. to MIME
/usr/local/lib/pine.info Local pointer to system
/usr/local/lib/pine.conf System-wide configuration file.
/usr/local/lib/pine.conf.fixed Non-overridable configuration
/tmp/.\usr\spool\mail\xxxx Per-folder mailbox lock files.
~/.pine-interrupted-mail Message which was interrupted.
~/mail/postponed-msgs For postponed messages.
~/mail/sent-mail Outgoing message archive (FCC).
~/mail/saved-messages Default destination for Saving
pico(1), binmail(1), aliases(5), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8),
Pine Information Center: http://www.washington.edu/pine
Pine Technical Notes, included in the source distribution.
C-Client messaging API library, included in the source
The University of Washington Pine development team (part of the UW Office
of Computing & Communications) includes:
Project Leader: Mike Seibel.
Principal authors: Mike Seibel, Steve Hubert, Laurence Lundblade.
C-Client library & IMAPd: Mark Crispin.
Pico, the PIne COmposer: Mike Seibel.
Bug triage, user support: David Miller.
Port integration: David Miller.
Documentation: David Miller, Stefan Kramer, Kathryn Sharpe.
PC-Pine for DOS: Mike Seibel.
PC-Pine for Windows: Tom Unger.
Project oversight: Terry Gray.
Principal Patrons: Ron Johnson, Mike Bryant.
Additional support: NorthWestNet.
Initial Pine code base: Elm, by Dave Taylor & USENET Community Trust.
Initial Pico code base: MicroEmacs 3.6, by Dave G. Conroy.
User Interface design: Inspired by UCLA's "Ben" mailer for MVS.
Suggestions/fixes/ports: Folks from all over!
Copyright 1989-1997 by the University of Washington.
Pine and Pico are trademarks of the University of Washington.